CONTENTS OF Vol. 32, No. 4, 2007
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JOSEP LIUIS MATEO DIESTE: Reformism and Muslim Brotherhoods in Spanish Colonial Morocco: Review of an ambiguous dichotomy.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to review the use of analytical dichotomies to describe the concurrence between the reformist movements and the Muslim brotherhoods in the Spanish Protectorate in Northern Morocco (1912-56). Colonial data indicates that these movements fought to define the most legitimate version of Islam but they also intermingled and found common interests according to dynamic factional and political divisions. It was these that were the social factors mostly affected by the Spanish policy of dividing Moroccan society. The clientelism with the colonial authorities shaped this complex interaction between reformism and brotherhoods not only in urban areas but also in the countryside.
SANDRA CARTER: Morocco, Youth Bands, Social Networking and the Internet.
ABSTRACT: Are concerns of cultural domination arising from international media and technology diminished by the cultural hybridity that occurs in place of the wholesale cultural imitation or identification feared as the worst outcome? In Morocco, cultural hybridity is the norm. The trend takes on new dimension with the introduction of satellite television, international flow of music and images, and the two-way exchange of ideas proffered by the internet. This paper addresses the phenomenon of a number of new musical groups in Morocco who reflect various trends in responding to transnational cultural flow. Hoba Hoba Spirit and others reaffirm a primary identification with Moroccanity and the need to address a specifically Moroccan audience, while H-Kayne and others take a more imitative heavy rap posture in targeting Moroccan and international youth. All the groups self represent on You Tube, MySpace, Facebook and other international social networking sites. I address internationalized music movements and analyze their presence on social networking sites to reach local as well as international audiences. Particularly significant is the musicians use new technology of digital video to make home-made music videos, editing on computer, and disseminating on internet, all for pratically no money which characterizes the situation of most Moroccan youth: a lot of time and creativity, no money, and a world focus abetted by new technology.
MOHAMED HAMLI: Les limites pénales à la liberté dexpression dans le droit algérien.
RÉSUMÉ: La liberté dexpression joue un rôle capital dans toute société, la commission européenne des droits de lhomme la considéré comme la pièce angulaire des principes de la démocratie et des droits de lhomme protégés par la convention. De son côté, la constitution algérienne de 1989 a garanti pour la première fois (dans son sens liberal) le principe de la liberté dexpression, ce dernier a été confirmé plus tard par la loi 90/07 relative à linformation. Mais en effet, cette liberté nest pas absolue, car le même législateur algérien a institué ce qui est convenu dappeler les délits de presse (la diffamation, injure, loffense au président de la république, latteinte à la vie privée). Ces derniers visent la protection de la considération et lhonneur des personnes ainsi que leur vie privée. Mais il parait que le législateur algérien na pas pu trouver un compromis entre cette protection et la garantie de la liberté dexpression, car ces délits institués contiennent beaucoup de contraintes sur lexercice de la liberté dexpression, notamment les dispositions qui ignorant la véracité des faits et la provocation comme des excuses légales en matière de diffamation et dinjure, ainsi les règles de responsabilité pénale de lauteur de ces délits qui sont vagues, et cela contrairement aux autres droits comparés qui ont adopté des solutions intéressantes.
ISRAEL GERSHONI: Monumental Sculpture and Nationalism: The Construction of the Commemorative Statue of Mustafa Kamil, 19141940
ABSTRACT: The paper attempts to reconstruct the processes
of the construction of the monumental sculpture commemorating Mustafa
Kamil (1874-1908). The statue, officially unveiled in May 1940, still
stands in the Mustafa Kamil square in downtown Cairo. The paper will
analyze the historical relationships between public commemoration, collective
memory, and national identity in the formation of national culture.
Kamils statue is presented as a case study within the much larger
undertaking of erecting monumental national sculptures and other artistic
monuments and icons during the interwar era in Cairo and Alexandria.
Extensively appropriating insights and methods from recent theoretical
discussions of collective memory and public commemoration, this paper
examines how different Egyptian communities of memory the National
Party, the state under successive regimes, the young effendiyya
particularly as it developed in the 1930s, and other elite and non-elite
groups within civil society remembered and commemorated Mustafa
Kamils struggle for independence, his national legacy and his
appropriate place in Egyptian communal memory. The study will follow
the commemorative processes from the production of the statue (created
by the famous Parisian sculptor Leopold Savine in the years 1908-1910),
to its transfer to Egypt in 1912 and its placement in a peripheral school
yard in Cairo in 1914 where it waited for redemption by the state in
May 1940 when it was officially unveiled. Three specific contexts will
be systematically considered.
LUCIE RYZOVA: Magazines, Writing, and Being Young in Interwar Egypt
ABSTRACT: My paper will focus on popular magazines
published in Egypt in the Interwar years, their urban readership, and
related changes in social practices. The period (the 1920s to 1940s)
saw the mushrooming of illustrated magazines of varying types. Their
forms ranged from lavish general variety magazines to cheap pulp-fiction
series; their content encompassed urban entertainment and sports to
high literature and/or religion. Crucially, such themes
would often meet within the scope of a single publication. Many canonical
works of Egyptian literature were first serialised through popular magazines;
conversely, cultural forms that were previously considered shameful
(dance, urban vaudeville) and consumed in discrete locations and specific
contexts (such as weddings) became part of the urban mainstream through
magazines, either as regular features in variety formats, or as publications
specialising in cabaret news. The magazine field as a whole
thus represented a venue in which ideas of lowbrow and highbrow were
negotiated with respect to the emerging national culture, resulting
in the formation of a national middlebrow culture. While
scholars have begun to use these magazines as a source for the writing
of history, the print market remains largely unexplored in its own terms.
My paper aims at discussing the magazines on three levels: (1) as a
field, tracing the history of the magazine form, (2) the magazines
urban readership its social and cultural identity and
(3) changes in social practices (reading, writing, and social perceptions
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